Central Analytical Laboratory

Central Analytical Laboratory

The Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL, B-108 & D-109) is well equipped with a number of sophisticated analytical instruments for the regular course works and research related activities. The following instrumental facilities as already established and available for services.
State-of-the-Art Facilities and Specifications
Small/Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS/WAXS)

Make: Xenocs SAS: France

Model: Nano-inXider SW-L SAXS/WAXS System with dual detector

Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is an analytical technique giving access to information about the structure of materials at the nano- and meso- scale. Measurements can be made on almost any sample, but most often is used for soft matter and nanostructured materials. SAXS is a primary characterization tool for polymers, surfactants, colloids, proteins, porous media, nanoparticles and nanocomposites.

X-ray Source

  • Cu Kα micro-focus copper X-ray tube


  • Multiple sample holders for powder and gels
  • Low noise Flow cell for measurement on liquids
  • High temperature sample stage [-150° C to 350° C]
  • GISAXS stage (grazing incidence)
  • Tensile 200 N force: Measurable force range: 0 N to 200 N with 0.01 N resolution


  • Xenocs XSACT Software for data analysis
Contact Angle Goniometer

Make: Biolin Scientific

Model: Theta Flex

Contact Angle: The contact angle measurements are useful in determining the surface wettability of various liquids over material surfaces. The measurements can provide the information on the surface free energy of the surfaces. Moreover, the technique is also capable of analysing the surface and interfacial tension of pure liquids and liquids containing surface active agents (surfactants).

Technical specifications:

  • Contact angle measurement range: 0 – 180°
  • Accuracy, Resolution: +/- 0.1°, 0.01°
  • Max Temperature: 250 °C
  • Camera maximum measuring speed & Maximum resolution: 3009 fps, 1984 ×1264 pixel (min 672 × 57).
Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC)

Make: Setaram

Model: Themys one+

TG-DSC: This instrument measures the mass and thermal fluctuations as a function of temperature in a sample. This is used to follow physical and chemical changes such as melting, crystallization, glass transition, endothermic and exothermic reactions.

Technical specifications:

  • Temperature range: RT- 1600 ℃
  • TG-DTA measurement range: up to 1600 ℃
  • DSC measurement range: up to 1600 ℃
  • Programmable rate: 0.01 to 100 ℃/min
  • Atmosphere: Nitrogen, Air
  • Flow rate: 50,100 mL/min
  • Sensitivity of microbalance: 0.1 mg
Cell Sorter

Make: BD Biosciences

Model: BD FACSAria III Cell Sorter

Cell Sorter: Cell sorting is the process of taking cells from an organism and separating them according to their type. The cells are labelled and tagged to identify areas of interest and their effect. They are separated based on differences in cell size, morphology (shape), and surface protein expression.

Technical specifications:

  • Three Laser system
  • Laser-1: 488 nm Blue laser, Laser-2: 633nm Red Laser, Laser-3: 405nm Violet Laser
  • Automatic Sample Input Agitation Operating temperature range: -20° C to 120° C
Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC)


Model: NGC QuestTM 100plus

FPLC is a form of medium-pressure chromatography that uses a pump to control the speed at which the mobile phase passes through the stationary phase. FPLC was introduced in 1982 by Pharmacia as fast performance liquid chromatography. Since then, many different medium-pressure chromatography systems have been developed. It should be noted that researchers often use the terms fast protein liquid chromatography, FPLC, and medium-pressure chromatography interchangeably.

Technical specifications:

  • Multiwavelengths (UV/Vis)
  • Conductivity detection
  • Automated sample injection
  • Flow rate 0.01-100 mL/min at 1450 psi (100 bar,10 MPa)
X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy(XPS)

Make: Thermo Fisher Scientific Pvt. Ltd. UK

Model: K-Alpha.

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface-sensitive spectroscopic technique to determine the elemental composition of solids.

Specific features:

  • Al Kα micro-focused monochromator
  • High-performance with low power (maximum 72W) Charge Compensation
  • Dual-beam source
  • Ultra-low energy co-axial electron and Ar+ ion beam.

Electron Analyzer

  • Double-focusing hemispherical analyzer
  • Multi-element, high-transmission spectrometer input lens
  • 128-channel detector for high quality snapshot spectra.
  • Kinetic energy: 5-1500ev

Type of analysis:

  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)
  • Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy(UPS)
  • Depth profile measurement.
  • XPS Mapping.
Impedance /Gain-Phase Analyzer 

Make: Solartron

Model: 1260A
Impedance analyzer is used to measure complex electrical impedance as a function of test frequency.


  • Frequency resolution: 10 µHz to 32 MHz
  • DC Bias: ±40.95V to ±100mV
  • Resolution:10µHz 32MHz
  • Measures impedances >50 Ω
  • 2-, 3- and 4-terminal measurement configurations
  • Voltage measurement range: 39mV to 3V
  • SMaRT software
Modular Compact Rheometer

Make: Anton Paar

Model: MCR-302
This instrument is used to characterize the visco-elastic properties of liquids in a very large range of viscosities.

Specific features: 

  • Plate/Cone: Plate/plate, Plate/cone, Concentric cylindrical
  • Temp: -40 to 120 °C
  • Measuring Plate: 8mm, 25mm
  • Removable Plate: 25mm, 50mm
  • Removable Cone: 25mm, 40mm
  • Software: Rheo Compass TM.
  • Sample required: 1 g (Solid), 1mL (gel), and 50mL (liq)
Time Correlated Single Photon Counting Fluorescence (TCSPC)

Make: Horiba

Model: DeltaFlex-01

  • TDM -850 emission monochromatic
  • Base plate size : 695 X368 mm
  • Front surface sample holder
  • Nano Leds -280, 340, 375L, 405L, 440L, 510L
  • Software: Ez Time analysis software

Steady State Modular Fluorescence

Make: Horiba

Model: Fl-3C

  • Source: Xe
  • Quartz cuvette: 4 mL, 1 mL
  • Solid Sample (SS) Holder
  • Rapid Peltier temperature controlled single sample holder
  • FL-Sphere
  • Software : FluorEssence controlling software
Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM)

FE-SEM is used to obtain topographical morphology and elemental information at magnifications of 10x to 300,000x, with virtually unlimited depth of field. The instrument has a high resolution of 1.5 to 2 nm. The specifications allow one to image non-conducting samples as well, when imaged under inverse bias mode.

  • Make: FEI
  • Model: Apreo LoVac
  • Retractable STEM 3+ Detector, DBS Detector
  • Aztec Standard EDS system - resolution 127 eV on Mn-kα Leica Ultra Microtome EM UC7 (Sputter Coater)
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) – 400 MHz

NMR is a powerful technique to elucidate the structure of organic molecules and inorganic complexes. The instrument has the capability of measuring liquid (solution) as well as solid samples (using solid state probe). A variety of NMR active nuclei can be studies using the instrument.

  • Make: Bruker
  • Model: AV NEO (400 MHz)
  • Multiprobe and low temperature in-built up to -35 ℃
  • Magnet system: ASCEND™ 400 MHz/ 54 mm Long Hold Time Magnet operation field at 9.4 Tesla
  • Auto-sampler
  • NMR Tubes: 7” x 5.0 mm with coded caps 

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is an analytical technique primarily used for phase identification and crystallite size of a crystalline material. The instrument is capable of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and variable temperature XRD measurements.

  • Make: Rigaku
  • Model: ULTIMA-IV
  • Attachments: Powder, SAXS, High temperature (RT- 1000 ℃), Capillary, Thin film
  • Measuring Circle Diameter: 1 cm x 1 cm x 0.5 mm, 1cm x 1cm x 0.3 mm
  • Angle range: 5-100°
  • X-ray source: Copper

Detector: Scintillation counter and dTex detector


Single-crystal X-ray Diffraction measurement provides detailed information about the internal lattice of crystalline substances, including unit cell dimensions, bond-lengths, bond-angles, and details of site-ordering. With single-crystal refinement, one can interpret and refine the data to obtain the crystal structure.

  • Make: Rigaku oxford
  • Model: XTALAB
  • Source: Mo (50mA, 40kV), Cu (50mA, 0.6kV)
  • Detector: Dectris Pilatus 3R 200K-A
  • Software: CrysAlisPro XtaLAB
  • Cryo system: up to -180 ℃

Dynamic range: >1,000,000:1 per pixel 


This technique allows one to capture multiple two-dimensional images at different depths in a sample and enables their construction into three-dimensional images. It is widely used in various disciplines such as cell biology, genetics, microbiology, developmental biology, pharmacy and nanotechnology.

  • Make: Leica
  • Model: TCS SP8
  • Microscope: DMi8
  • Magnification: 10x, 20x, 40x, 63x
  • Lasers: 405, 458, 488, 514, 561, 594, 633 nm
  • Detector: PMT 1, PMT 2, HyD 3, PMT 4 and PMT Trans

Software: LAS X


The universal testing machine is a testing system designed to determine the mechanical properties of the specimens of various types of materials such as metals, polymers, elastomers, ceramics, biomaterials and composites, as per ASTM standards. This is achieved through mechanical loading by an electromechanical drive.

  • Make: Zwick Roell Z100
  • Load Cells: 100 kN and 5 kN
  • Testing: Tension, Compression and Flexure
  • Extensometer: Contact as well as Laser (Green)
  • Operation: Constant engineering as well as true strain rate conditions
  • Temperature chamber: -170 °C to 200 °C
  • High-temperature furnace: up to 1200 °Celsius

Circular dichroism (CD) measures the difference in absorbance of right- and left-circularly polarized light (rather than the commonly used absorbance of isotropic light) by a substance. The CD spectra are widely used to study the secondary structures of biological samples such as peptides and proteins.

  • Make: Jasco
  • Model: J-1500
  • Software: Spectra Manager
  • Detector: PMT
  • Wavelength range: 190-800 nm (UV-Vis)

Cuvettes: 1mm, 2mm, 5mm, 10mm


ED-XRF is utilized in the identification and quantification of elements in a substance. The characteristic X-ray Fluorescence radiation intensity from the sample is compared with the standard library and calibration curves.

  • Make: PANalytical
  • Model: Epsilon-1 (ED-XRF)
  • Element range: Sodium to Americium

Liquid and Solid


This technique is typically used to separate and analyze biological, organic, and inorganic compounds commonly found in a mixture. The technique also helps in identifying unknown compounds in complex sample matrices and quantify low level proteins, contaminants, pesticides, or drug metabolites with accuracy and reliability.

  • Make: Shimadzu
  • Model: LCMS 8040
  • Modes: ESI and APCI

Triple Quadrupole upto 2000 m/z value


This chromatographic technique is an advanced version of liquid chromatography that is used to separate, identify, and quantify the components in a mixture of organic molecules.

  • Make: Shimadzu
  • Model: UFLC
  • Fluorescence detector

Second instrument: PDA detector


Gas chromatography (GC) is useful in separating and analyzing compounds that vaporize without decomposition. Like liquid chromatography, GC is used to test the purity of a particular substance, or separate and quantify the different components of a mixture.

  • Make: Shimadzu
  • Model: GC-2010 PLUS
  • Column: FID, TCD
  • Max pressure: 970 kPa
  • Max flow rate: 1200 ml/min
  • Temperature range: RT to 400 ℃
  • Auto Injector
  • Carrier gas: Helium, Nitrogen, carbon dioxide

Atomic absorption spectroscopy is used for the identification and quantification of metals in ultra-low concentration present in different solutions.

  • Make: Shimadzu
  • Model: AA7000
  • Lamps: 16 (Hg, Pd, As, Pb, Fe, Cd, Pt, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Al, Na, K, Cu, Ru, Ca)
  • Lamp mode: EMISSION, NON-BGC, BGC-D2, BGC-SR
  • Wavelength range: 185 nm to 900 nm
  • Temperature range: RT to 3000 ℃
  • Carrier gas: Ar, Acetylene, Nitrous Oxide
  • Detection limit: ppm level

This instrument measures the thermal fluctuations as a function of temperature in a sample. This is used to follow physical and chemical changes such as melting, crystallization, glass transition, endothermic and exothermic reactions.

  • Make: Shimadzu
  • Model: DSC-60
  • Temperature range: RT to 500 ℃
  • Measurement range: RT to 500 ℃
  • Heating rate: 5,10,15,20 ℃/min
  • Cooling rate: 5,10,15,20 ℃/min
  • Atmosphere: Zero air, Nitrogen
  • Flow rate: 50,100 ml/min

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) provides information about thermal stability and degradation pattern of organic, inorganic and polymeric samples. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) simultaneously reveals the enthalpy of the physical and chemical changes as a function of temperature.

  • Make/Model: Shimadzu DTG-60
  • Temperature range: RT- 1000 ℃
  • TG measurement range: upto 1000 ℃
  • DTA measurement range: upto 1000 ℃
  • Programmable rate: 5,10,15,20 ℃/min
  • Atmosphere: Nitrogen, Zero Air
  • Flow rate: 50,100 ml/min

Sensitivity of microbalance: 0.1 microgram

Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) Surface Area Analyzer

BET Surface Area Analyzer measures the specific surface area of powders, solids and granules. In addition, the technique also gives other valuable information such as pore size, pore size distribution, pore diameter and pore volume.

  • Make: Microtrac Bel  
  • Model: BEL SORP mini II  
  • Gases: Helium, Nitrogen, carbon dioxide  

Software: BEL SORP mini

Other Instrumental Facilities


  • Make: Jasco
  • Model: V-650
  • Wavelength range: 190-900 nm
  • Double beam system with single monochromator
  • Wavelength accuracy: +/- 0.2 nm
  • Repeatability: +/- 0.05
  • Software: Spectra Manager


  • Make: Jasco
  • Model: FP-6300
  • Wavelength range: 190-900 nm


  • Make: Jasco
  • Model: P-2000
  • Wavelength: 325, 365, 405, 436, 546, 589, 633 nm
  • Lamp: Sodium Lamp, Halogen lamp
  • Wavelength range: UV-Vis-NIR
  • Software: Spectra Manager


  • Make: Jasco
  • Model: FTIR-4200
  • Spectral range: 400-4000 nm
  • Resolution: +/- 0.5
  • Wavenumber accuracy: +/- 0.01 cm-1
  • Ge/KBr beam splitter
  • DLATGS Detector
  • DRA-81
  • Solid / liquid samples about 2 mg. Solvent should be specified for measurement in solution phases


  • Make: Jasco
  • Model: UV-670
  • Spectral Range: 190-3200 nm
For Further Information Contact
Name : Central Analytical Laboratory
Incharge : Prof. Ramakrishnan Ganesan
Email :
Phone No.:- 040-66303602